Feeding by lepidopteran larvae is dangerous: A review of caterpillars’ chemical, physiological, morphological, and behavioral defenses against natural enemies
Keywords:caterpillar, larva, parasitoid, pathogen, predator
Larval lepidopterans (hereafter, caterpillars) protect themselves from natural enemies with a
diverse suite of defenses which are employed before, during, or after encounters with enemies. Some strategies help caterpillars avoid detection, while others function to repel or escape attackers. Postattack strategies attempt to remove or destroy the eggs or larvae of parasitoids. In this review we focus on some of the best documented chemical, physiological, morphological, and behavioral characters which protect caterpillars from predators, parasitoids, and pathogens.