Gene expression and regulation of molecules involved in pharynx inflammatory response induced by LPS in Ciona intestinalis
Keywords:ascidian, inflammation, pharynx, LPS, Ciona intestinalis
In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the pharynx (hemopoietic organ) connects the external environment to the gastrointestinal system for two main activities, respiration and food collection, potentially exposing the ascidian to high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Recently, evidence in C. intestinalis has indicated that the pharynx is involved in the inflammatory reaction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection into the body wall. Immune-related genes such as cytokines, galectins, pro-PO, CAP are expressed in pharynx hemocytes and are up-regulated by the inflammatory agent LPS. Studies of the expression pattern of the immune gene clearly show that in C. intestinalis, as in vertebrates, immune gene expression can be regulated through Alternative Polyadenylation (APA) Mechanism and GAIT element al 3’UTR.