Effect of essential and non-essential elements on cellular immune system of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Keywords:Beauveria bassiana, Cadmium, Copper, Helicoverpa armigera, Nodulation, THC, DHC
Three concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg of cadmium and 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of copper were added to artificial diet and fed to larvae for 7 days. Total hemocytes count (THC) at 12.5 mg/kg concentration of cadmium significantly declined, but at 50 mg/ kg of cadmium and all treatments of copper, the THC was significantly enhanced. As for differential hemocytes count (DHC) prohemocytes were reduced at 12.5 mg/kg of cadmium treatment and all concentrations of copper, while granulocytes in all treatments of cadmium were increased. The phenoloxidase activity and nodulation were increased versus entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and latex beads. The adverse influence of stresses on immune responses of pest can be an effective solution for insect pest control.